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Philosopher Key Points

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Philosophers' Key Points and Works

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Adorno ()

Aesthetic Theory (1970)


Concepts: distinction between “phenomena” (our mental representations of things) and “noumena” (the thing in itself)

Critique of Pure Judgement re: art, three kinds of judgments; a function of the subject not the object

1) Judgment of taste based on pleasure (thinks everyone should feel that same pleasure); based on SENSATION not CONCEPT

2) Judgement of the sublime

3) Judgment of the agreeable



Concepts: fundamental ontology (BT)


Henri Bergson (1859–1941)

  • Time and Free Will: An Essay on the Immediate Data of Consciousness (1889): the way to maintain free will is to tune into qualitative internal experience, [especially] like experiencing time as elapsing when in the moment
  • Matter and Memory (1896): resolution to the standard mind-body/realism-idealism problem by understanding it in a temporal way and introducing memory instead of mind
  • Creative Evolution (1907): elan vital, duration opens up to be a vast ontological principle not just a function of consciousness, the elan vital, vital force, a metaphor for a notion of time as energy of being or life which cannot be captured by a concept but must be lived; this vitality intrinsic to life is matter soaked in time, a force of pure mobility evolves, time is pure mobility, e.g.; which is to say pure difference; intelligence is just one mode of adaptation within life 


  • Phenomenology of Spirit ()

Concepts: absolute spirit

Nietzsche (1844-1900)

  • The Birth of Tragedy (1872)
  • Human, All Too Human (1878)
  • The Gay Science (1882)
  • Thus Spoke Zarathustra (1883-1885)
  • Beyond Good and Evil (1886)
  • On the Genealogy of Morality (1887)
  • Twilight of the Idols (1888)
  • The Antichrist (1888)
  • Ecce Homo (1888)
  • The Will to Power (unpublished manuscripts edited by Elisabeth Förster-Nietzsche, 1977)

Concepts: The "slave revolt" in morals, Death of God and nihilism, Apollonian and Dionysian, Perspectivism, Will to power, Eternal return, Übermensch


Jacques Rancière

  • The Aesthetic Revolution and its Outcomes: Emplotments of Autonomy and Heteronomy (2002 essay)
  • The Politics of Aesthetics (2006)


  • Don't have identity construction outside of power, power is always there, present (Judith Butler)
  • National state of woman is outside the phallologocentric economy; woman can't be signified because signification is a masculine practice (Luce Irigaray)

Queer Theory


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